Luck is a brand new mechanic introduced in Terraria 1.4, Journey’s End. It is a complicated system that is mostly hidden from the player, at least until you meet the Wizard in Hardmode. Good luck or bad luck essentially has an effect on all drops, mob spawns and biome-unique spawns.
There are new lucky and unluck debuffs, available from Ladybugs, Potions and from Torches. The Ladybug luck buff is achieved by touching a ladybug caught and then released by a player, and it can have a huge effect on the RNG drop rates of items. However, it is the Torches that have got everyone a little annoyed…
Grinding for mob drops is a key part of Terraria and always has been. RNG also has an impact on whether or not you find the rare NPC spawns, such as the Tinkerer, and getting your hands on rare Traveling Merchant items.
Luck has a huge impact on gameplay, as there is a rolling RNG mechanic incorporated into the values. In Terraria there is a chance of discovering random encounters, items and other drops.
Having a positive luck score increases the chance of these random events occurring. This covers everything from finding Coin Portals in Pots to discovering Pinky somewhere on the map.
With a high luck score, the chance of discovering rare drops or NPCs can be increased up to 20%. With the lowest luck score, the probability is decreased all the way to 6.5%. Pretty huge difference, right?
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